|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 29-33
A survey of job satisfaction among nurses and its correlate in a tertiary healthcare in Northern Nigeria
Emmanuel Ugwa1, Charity Ugwa2
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, FMC, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State, Nigeria
2 Department of Nursing Services, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Kano, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||12-Feb-2015|
Dr. Emmanuel Ugwa
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, FMC, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of job satisfaction and its correlate among nurses in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH); and to compare the levels of job satisfaction between senior and junior nurses.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of senior and junior nurses working at various specialties in AKTH, Kano. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. Questionnaires were used to obtain a response from 350 nurses in a five-point Likert scale. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used. Significant association of job satisfaction and sociodemographic variables was tested using the Chi-square test and Pearson' Coefficient of Correlation. Statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05.
Result: The mean ages were 30.26 ± 4.76 and 40.19 ± 5.61 years for junior and senior nurses, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant, (P = 0.001). The mean number of dependents was higher (5 ± 2) for senior nurses compared to junior nurses (4 ± 2), but the difference was not statistically significant. Both age and number of dependents showed very weak positive correlations with job satisfaction. The average duration of service for senior nurses (9.45 ± 4.25 years) was higher than that of junior nurses (3.44 ± 2.00 years), and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Most junior nurses had their promotion 4-7 years prior to the study (58.75%) compared to the senior nurses whose promotion was within the past 3 years (64.7%). Nurses in the two groups worked 7-9 h/day (84.3% and 85.3%). Duration of last promotion showed very weak positive correlation with job satisfaction.
Conclusion: There are generally high levels of job satisfaction among nurses in AKTH compared with those report from other studies and this showed a very weak positive correlation with promotion. Job satisfaction may improve if nurses are promoted timely.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, Northern Nigeria, nurses, tertiary healthcare
|How to cite this article:|
Ugwa E, Ugwa C. A survey of job satisfaction among nurses and its correlate in a tertiary healthcare in Northern Nigeria. J Nat Accred Board Hosp Healthcare Providers 2014;1:29-33
|How to cite this URL:|
Ugwa E, Ugwa C. A survey of job satisfaction among nurses and its correlate in a tertiary healthcare in Northern Nigeria. J Nat Accred Board Hosp Healthcare Providers [serial online] 2014 [cited 2018 Sep 22];1:29-33. Available from: http://www.nabh.ind.in/text.asp?2014/1/2/29/151294
| Introduction|| |
Managers are concerned with job satisfaction because they have a moral responsibility to do what they can to provide their employees with a satisfying work environment and believe that the behavior of satisfied workers will make positive contributions to the organization. Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Nigeria, where a significant proportion of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by nurses and community health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. There is, therefore, need to ensure that these workers attain the highest possible levels of satisfaction with their jobs in order to perform better.
The concept of job satisfaction and an assessment of job satisfaction began first in 1911 with the research of Frank Taylor.  Job satisfaction is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs.  Job satisfaction research among health workers started on laboratory personnel in United States of America in 1971.  Since then myriad of researches on various categories of health worker like physicians,  dentists, , nurses,  physiotherapists, , and primary health care workers  in different parts of the world have been conducted. The implication of job satisfaction of health worker on patient care, patient satisfaction, improved patient outcome, and overall health care delivery quality was perceived as the driving force.  Job satisfaction has been defined in various contexts by different authors. Locke  defined job satisfaction as the pleasurable or positive emotional state that results from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. Porter and Lawler  were of the opinion that job satisfaction was a one-dimensional construct where one was either generally satisfied or dissatisfied with his or her job. However, Hulin and Smith  were of the opinion that job satisfaction was multi-dimensional. They argued that one may be more or less satisfied with some aspects of his or her job which may include the supervisor, pay, condition of workplace and so on. Herzberg et al.  formulated a two-factor theory categorizing factors affecting job dissatisfaction as well as job satisfaction. They used the term hygiene factors to refer to factors that affect job dissatisfaction. Examples of hygiene factors include benefits, organizational policies, salary, supervision, and working conditions. Although hygiene factors can have an impact on job dissatisfaction, they do not impact job satisfaction, which has been defined as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences."  Herzberg et al.  referred to factors that influence job satisfaction as motivators. Examples of motivators include achievement, advancement, recognition, and responsibility. Katz,  in a pilot study found that health workers satisfaction is associated with desirable patient outcome. Longitudinal studies have shown that dissatisfied health workers are more likely to unionize,  strike,  experience medical problems.  In a comparative study in Benin city by Ofili et al.,  a strong association was found between psychological disorder and job dissatisfaction among nurses in a Nigerian teaching hospital. This association remained after controlling for possible confounding factors such as the presence of adolescent children and length of service.
In recent times, there has been a convergence of interest on the efforts by organizations to examine conditions that foster greater satisfaction and performance with job. While the concern for employee satisfaction and performance in Nigeria is high, empirical research on its correlates is insignificant.
The objective of this study, therefore, is to assess the levels of job satisfaction and its correlate among nurses in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH); and to compare the levels of job satisfaction between senior and junior nurses with the purpose of making recommendation for improvement to health human resource managers.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This was a cross-sectional study that involved 350 nurses of different cadres and specializations in AKTH between February 28, 2013 and May 31, 2013. Ethical clearance was obtained from Health Research Ethics Committee of AKTH with reference number NHREC/21/08/2008/AKTH/EC/1031 dated March 18, 2013. Informed consent was obtained prior to the onset of the survey using consent form; the survey was anonymous and participation was voluntary. Nursing officers and senior nursing officers were recruited for the study. Questionnaires were used to obtain a response in a five point Likert scale: Strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree. Their response to each question was scored as follows: 1 = agree; 2 = somewhat agree; 3 = neutral; 4 = somewhat disagree; and 5 = disagree. A lower score was, therefore, associated with the agreement and higher scores with increasing levels of disagreement. Individual questions were grouped by aspect covered into several composite indices, and the means of the responses for these composite indices were reported. Each question carried equal weight. For easy analysis, the responses were then categorized as satisfied (comprising agreed and somewhat agree), undecided (neutral), and dissatisfied (comprising somewhat disagree and disagree). The documented prevalence of job satisfaction from a previous similar study was 30.3%.  The sample size was calculated using a technique of prevalence. n = z 2 p q/d 2 (n = Sample Size, z = Standard Normal Deviation = 1.96 at 95% Confidence Limit, p = Prevalence rate satisfaction rate from a similar previous study = 30.3%, q = 1 − P = 1-30.3% = 0.697, d = Error Margin = 5%).
The calculated minimum sample size was 325. Ten percent of minimum sample size was added because of attrition. Therefore, the sample size of 350 patients was used for this study. Letters A and B was written on 350 questionnaires shared consecutively and equally among groups A and B. Subsets of the study population (group A) comprising 175 subjects were senior and another subset (group B) comprising 175 subjects were junior nurses.
The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Il) statistical software. Absolute numbers and simple percentages were used to describe categorical variables. Similarly, quantitative variables were described using measures of central tendency (mean, median) and measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation) as appropriate. Significant association of job satisfaction and sociodemographic variables was tested using the Chi-square test and Pearson' Coefficient of Correlation (r). Statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
At the end of the study, 330 questionnaires were correctly filled and returned (160 for nursing officers and 170 for senior nursing officers), and this gave a complete response rate of 94.3%. Drop-out was more among the junior nurses (8.57%) than the senior nurses (2.94%).
Most of the nurses were in the age range of 31-40 years (56.2% and 62.4%) followed by those who were 20-30 (41.9%) and 41-50 years (28.8%) among the junior and senior nurses respectively. The mean ages were 30.26 ± 4.76 and 40.19 ± 5.61 years for junior and senior nurses, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant, (P = 0.001). Most of the nurses were of Islamic faith (73.1% and 58.8%) followed by those who were Christians (26.9% and 38.2%), most were married (73.8% and 84.1%) for both junior and senior nurses, respectively. The mean number of dependents was higher (5 ± 2) for senior nurses compared to junior nurses (4 ± 2), but the difference was not statistically significant. Both age and number of dependents showed very weak positive correlations with job satisfaction [Table 1].
Majority of the junior nurses (44.3%) had worked in AKTH for 1-2 years, while majority of the senior nurses (61.8%) had worked for >6 years and the average duration of service for senior nurses (9.45 ± 4.25 years) was higher than that of junior nurses (3.44 ± 2.00 years) and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). With respect to duration of last promotion, most junior nurses had their promotion 4-7 years prior to the study (58.75%) compared to the senior nurses whose promotion was within the past 3 years (64.7%). There was no statistically significant difference in duration of last promotion between the junior and senior nurses (P > 0.05). Nurses in the two groups worked 7-9 h/day (84.3% and 85.3%) and there was no statistically significant difference in number of hours worked per day between the two groups (P = 0.05). Duration of last promotion showed very weak positive correlation with job satisfaction [Table 2].
| Discussion|| |
This study demonstrated that most of the nurses were in the age range 31-40 years (56.2% and 62.4%) followed by those who were 20-30 (41.9%) and 41-50 years (28.8%) among the junior and senior nurses, respectively. This compares with another study which demonstrated that approximately in half of nurses their ages were between 20 and <25 years, meanwhile in very few of them their ages were at 40 to ≤45 years. 
The mean number of dependents from this study was higher (5 ± 2) for senior nurses compared to junior nurses (4 ± 2), but the difference was not statistically significant. Although the present study did not report any significant correlation between the number of dependents and job satisfaction a previous study showed that nurses having 2-3 children were more satisfied with their jobs. 
This study has also demonstrated that majority of the junior nurses (44.3%) had worked in AKTH for 1-2 years, while majority of the senior nurses (61.8%) had worked for >6 years. A previous study had shown that their years of experience were 2 to <5  and that the length of service showed the most significant correlation with jobs satisfaction.  According to a study carried out by Chandan,  job satisfaction usually tends to be high when people enter the workforce; it plummets and then plateaus for several years up to the age of roughly 30 years, after which there will be a gradual increase in satisfaction. This association was however not demonstrated in this present study which showed a very weak correlation between duration of service and job satisfaction among nurses in AKTH. Nurses in the two groups worked 7-9 h/day (84.3% and 85.3%). The number of hours worked per day did not show any significant association with jobs satisfaction among nurses in AKTH. This is contrary to another study which showed that the number of hours worked per day was significantly associated with jobs satisfaction among nurses.  Long shifts, overtime, weekends, nights, holidays, and weekend overtime were found to be predictors of anticipated turnover. , Vetter et al.  described a process of self-scheduling that met the needs of staff, promoted high job satisfaction, and maintained staffing standards on the unit.
The report of this study showed that most junior nurses had their promotion 4-7 prior to the study (58.75) compare to the senior nurses whose promotion was within the past 3 years (64.7%). This study showed that the promotion showed the strongest correlation with job satisfaction compared with the other variables. As other study has suggested, delays in promotion may results in dissatisfaction and have a stronger impact on nurse turnover than workload or pay.  Multivariate analysis of data collected by Davidson et al.  in a longitudinal survey of nurses in one hospital indicated that predictors of intent to leave were the perception of little promotional opportunity.
According to Ofili et al.  in a study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Nigeria, 56% of nurses were either very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs, 9% were undecided, while 36% were very satisfied or satisfied with their job. This is lower than the 63.3% reported in another study.  Studies have shown that age, position, specialty, and length of service showed low correlation with job satisfaction. , More researches are required to understand the relative importance of identified factors of job satisfaction.  An earlier work posited that autonomy and task delegation strongly predicts job satisfaction.  Another study, however reported that impact of time on job satisfaction was highly dependent on specialism and nurses were more satisfied with the relationship rather than pay.  Some nurses are dissatisfied because they felt being devalued.  Other studies have shown that nurses felt they were not treated as clinicians or peers by doctors and hospital managers but as assistants, at risk of being replaced by less-qualified personnel who cost less to employ. 
In conclusion, there are generally high levels of job satisfaction among nurses in AKTH compared with other studies and this correlate more with promotion than other sociodemographic and work variables. The senior nurses were more satisfied with their jobs than the junior nurses.
Job satisfaction among nurses may improve if nurses are promoted as at when due. However, a multicenter study is highly indicated in order to address other regional issues that may affect job satisfaction among nurses in Nigeria.
| Acknowledgment|| |
The author acknowledges the useful contribution Dr. Muhammad Zakari of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano-Nigeria, in preparation of this manuscript.
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[Table 1], [Table 2]